Methodology

INFORM has three dimensions: hazard & exposure, vulnerability and lack of coping capacity. Each dimension encompasses different categories, which are user-driven concepts related to the needs of humanitarian and resilience actors.

Risk concept

The INFORM model is based on risk concepts published in scientific literature and envisages three dimensions of risk: hazards & exposure, vulnerability and lack of coping capacity dimensions. They are conceptualized in a counterbalancing relationship: the risk of what (natural and human hazard), and the risk to what (population). 

The INFORM model balances two major forces: the hazard & exposure dimension on one side, and the vulnerability and the lack of coping capacity dimensions on the other side. Hazard dependent factors are treated in the hazard & exposure dimension, while hazard independent factors are divided into two dimensions: the vulnerability dimension that considers the strength of the individuals and households relative to a crisis situation, and the lack of coping capacity dimension that considers factors of institutional strength.

The INFORM model adopts the three aspects of vulnerability reflected in the UNISDR definition. The aspects of physical exposure and physical vulnerability are integrated in the hazard & exposure dimension, the aspect of fragility of the socio-economic system becomes INFORM’s vulnerability dimension while lack of resilience to cope and recover is treated under the lack of coping capacity dimension. The split of vulnerability in three components is particularly useful for tracking the results of disaster reduction strategies over time.  Disaster risk reduction activities are often localized and address particular community-level vulnerabilities and capacities. 

The UNISDR and most of the literature express risk by: 

Risk = Hazard × Exposure × Vulnerability

In order to accommodate the INFORM methodology, where the vulnerability variable is split among three dimensions, the equation is updated to:

Risk = Hazard&Exposure 1/3 × Vulnerability 1/3 × Lack of coping capacity 1/3

It is a multiplicative equation. The risk equals zero if one of the three dimensions above is zero. Theoretically, in case of tropical cyclones there is no risk if there is no likelihood of a tropical cyclone to occur or/and the hazard zone is not populated or/and if the population is not vulnerable (e.g., all people have high level of education and live in high level of health and livelihood condition as well as they can afford houses built to a high level of wind security) or/and if the resilience of the country to cope and recover is ideal.

INFORM components

INFORM has three dimensions: hazard & exposure, vulnerability and lack of coping capacity. 

Each dimension encompasses different categories. Categories cannot be fully captured by any individual indicator, but serve to meet the needs of humanitarian and resilience actors. We can say that the selection of categories is user-driven (for example, UNISDR may follow the institutional category index in the coping capacity dimension while UNICEF and WFP may be more interested in the category of vulnerable groups in the vulnerability dimension). Underlying factors that contribute to the ranking results can be sought down through the levels depending on how narrowly the users intend to target their interventions. Each category can be broken down into components that capture the topic and are presented with a carefully chosen set of indicators.

The model of INFORM can be split into different levels to provide a quick overview of the issues in need of targeted actions:

  • Ranking level
  • Concept level – dimensions
  • Functional level – categories
  • Component level – sets of indicators that capture the concept of each category

Component selection

The theoretical framework provides the basis for component selection, which is the next crucial step in the design of the composite index. The components should be:

  • relevant: justification based on the existing literature, 
  • representative and robust: focused on the component to be described, proportionally responsive to the changes, they should avoid broad measures ( e.g., GDP/capita),
  • transparent and conceptually clear.

Furthermore, strengths and weaknesses of the composite index also derive from the core indicators, i.e. data sets describing the chosen component. These should be:

  • reliable and open-source,
  • continuous, consistent, with global coverage,
  • potentially scalable from national to subnational, from yearly to seasonal (monthly) scale.

A composite index is typically a compromise between a data driven and a user driven model. There are always some components which existing data cannot describe, especially if the demands for quality of data are very high. 

Hazard & Exposure

The hazard & exposure dimension reflects the probability of physical exposure associated with specific hazards. There is no risk if there is no physical exposure, no matter how severe the hazard event is. Therefore, the hazard and exposure dimensions are merged into hazard & exposure dimension. As such it represents the load that the community has to deal with when exposed to a hazard event. The dimension comprises two categories: natural hazards and human-induced hazards, aggregated with the geometric mean, where both indexes carry equal weight within the dimension.

Vulnerability

The main focus of humanitarian organizations is people, which is the element at risk contemplated in the INFORM composite index. The impact of disasters on people in terms of number of people killed, injured, and made homeless is predominantly felt in developing countries while the economic costs of disasters are concentrated in the industrialized world. The Vulnerability dimension addresses the intrinsic predispositions of an exposed population to be affected, or to be susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard, even though the assessment is made through hazard independent indicators. So, the vulnerability dimension represents economic, political and social characteristics of the community that can be destabilized in case of a hazard event. Physical vulnerability, which is a hazard dependent characteristic, is dealt with separately in the hazard & exposure dimension. 

There are two categories aggregated through the geometric average, socio-economic vulnerability and vulnerable groups. The indicators used in each category are different in time variability and the social groups considered in each category are the target of different humanitarian organizations. If the first category refers more to the demography of a country in general, the vulnerable group category captures social groups with limited access to social and health care systems. 

Lack of Coping Capacity

For the coping capacity dimension, the question is which issues the government has addressed to increase the resilience of the society and how successful their implementation is. The coping capacity dimension measures the ability of a country to cope with disasters in terms of formal, organized activities and the effort of the country’s government as well as the existing infrastructure which contribute to the reduction of disaster risk. It is aggregated by a geometric mean of two categories: institutional and infrastructure. The difference between the categories is in the stages of the disaster management cycle that they are focusing on. If the institutional category covers the existence of DRR programmes which address mostly mitigation and preparedness/early warning phase, then the infrastructure category measures the capacity for emergency response and recovery. 

INFORM Indicators

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Indicator Source  
Access to electricity
Code: SER.EG.ELC.ACCS.ZS  —  Unit: [%]
Access to electricity (% of population)
World Bank
http://data.worldbank.org/
Copyright Notice: The World Bank strives to enhance public access to and use of data that it collects and publishes. See http://go.worldbank.org/OJC02YMLA0.
Agriculture Stress Index Probability
Code: ASI  —  Unit: [%]
Agriculture Stress Index Probability
FAO
http://www.fao.org/giews/earthobservation/asis/index_1.jsp?lang=en
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Average dietary supply adequacy
Code: FS.AVA.ADSA.PR.RT  —  Unit: [%]
Average dietary energy supply as a percentage of the average dietary energy requirement.
FAO
http://www.fao.org/economic/ess/ess-fs/ess-fadata/en/
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Child Mortality
Code: CM  —  Unit: [‰]
Under-five mortality rate (probability of dying by age 5 per 1000 live births)
Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (IGME)
http://www.childmortality.org/
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Children Under Weight
Code: CUW  —  Unit: [%]
Children aged <5 years Under Weight
WHO Global Health Observatory Data Repository, UNICEF The State of the World’s Children
http://apps.who.int/ghodata/; http://www.unicef.org/publications/index_pubs_statistics.html
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Conflict HIIK National Power
Code: CON_HIIK_NP  —  Unit: 1-5
The HIIK's annual publication Conflict Barometer describes the recent trends in global conflict developments, escalations, de-escalations, and settlements.
Conflict Barometer - HIIK (Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research)
http://www.hiik.de/en/konfliktbarometer/index.html
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Conflict HIIK Subnational
Code: CON_HIIK_SN  —  Unit: 1-5
The HIIK's annual publication Conflict Barometer describes the recent trends in global conflict developments, escalations, de-escalations, and settlements.
Conflict Barometer - HIIK (Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research)
http://www.hiik.de/en/konfliktbarometer/index.html
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Corruption Perception Index
Code: CPI  —  Unit: 0-100
The CPI scores and ranks countries based on how corrupt a country’s public sector is perceived to be. It is a composite index, a combination of surveys and assessments of corruption, collected by a variety of reputable institutions.
Transparency International
http://cpi.transparency.org
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Domestic Food Price Level Index
Code: FS.FPI.DFPLI.XD.RT  —  Unit: Index
A measure of the monthly change in international prices of a basket of food commodities.
FAO
http://www.fao.org/economic/ess/ess-fs/ess-fadata/en/
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Domestic Food Price Volatility Index
Code: FS.FPI.DFPVI.XD.RT  —  Unit: Index
The Domestic Food Price Volatility compares the variations of the Domestic Food Price Index across countries and time.
FAO
http://www.fao.org/economic/ess/ess-fs/ess-fadata/en/
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Drought affected
Code: AFF_DR  —  Unit: Number
People affected by droughts 1989-2014 - average annual population affected (inhabitants)
EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database
http://www.emdat.be
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Drought Frequency
Code: AFF_DR.FREQ  —  Unit: [%]
Drought Frequency
EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database
http://www.emdat.be
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Estimated number of people living with HIV - Adult (>15) rate
Code: HIV  —  Unit: [%]
Estimated number of people living with HIV - Adult (>15) rate
WHO Global Health Observatory Data Repository
http://apps.who.int/ghodata/
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Estimated Population
Code: POP_DEN  —  Unit: Number
Estimated Population
LandScan

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GCRI Highly Violent Internal Conflict probability
Code: VC.HVC.GCRI.PR  —  Unit: [%]
GCRI Highly Violent Internal Conflict probability
JRC
http://conflictrisk.gdacs.org
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GCRI Violent Internal Conflict probability
Code: VC.VC.GCRI.PR  —  Unit: [%]
GCRI Violent Internal Conflict probability
JRC
http://conflictrisk.gdacs.org
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GDP per capita, PPP (current international $)
Code: GDPppPPP  —  Unit: PPP int$
GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
International Monetary Fund

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Gender Inequality Index
Code: GII  —  Unit: 0 - 1
The Gender Inequality Index (GII) reflects gender-based disadvantages in three dimensions—reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market. The value of GII range between 0 to 1, with 0 being 0% inequality, indicating women fare equally in comparison to men and 1 being 100% inequality, indicating women fare poorly in comparison to men.
UNDP Human Development Report
http://hdr.undp.org/en/data
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Government Effectiveness
Code: GovernmentEffectiveness  —  Unit: -2.5 / 2.5
Reflects perceptions of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government's commitment to such policies.
World Bank
http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/index.asp
Copyright Notice: The World Bank strives to enhance public access to and use of data that it collects and publishes. See http://go.worldbank.org/OJC02YMLA0.
Health expenditure per capita
Code: HLT.SH.XPD.PCAP.KD  —  Unit: PPP US$
Per capita total expenditure on health (THE) expressed in Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) international dollar.
WHO Global Health Observatory Data Repository
http://apps.who.int/ghodata/
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Human Development Index
Code: HDI  —  Unit: 0 - 1
The Human Development Index measure development by combining indicators of life expectancy, educational attainment and income into a composite index.
UNDP Human Development Report
http://hdr.undp.org/en/data
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Hyogo Framework for Action
Code: HFA  —  Unit: 1-5
The indicator for the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) activity in the country comes from the score of Hyogo Framework for Action self-assessment progress reports of the countries. HFA progress reports assess strategic priorities in the implementation of disaster risk reduction actions and establish baselines on levels of progress achieved in implementing the HFA's five priorities for action.
UNISDR
http://preventionweb.net/applications/hfa/qbnhfa/
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Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)
Code: HLT.SH.STA.ACSN  —  Unit: [%]
Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained.
WHO; UNICEF
http://www.wssinfo.org/data-estimates/table/
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Improved water source (% of population with access)
Code: HLT.SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS  —  Unit: [%]
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling.
WHO; UNICEF
http://www.wssinfo.org/data-estimates/table/
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Income Gini coefficient - Inequality in income or consumption
Code: ECO.SI.POV.GINI  —  Unit: [%]
Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income or consumption expenditure among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.
World Bank
http://hdr.undp.org/en/data
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Internally Displaced People
Code: IDP_C  —  Unit: Number
Internally Displaced People (max)
IDMC
http://www.internal-displacement.org/8025708F004CE90B/(httpPages)/22FB1D4E2B196DAA802570BB005E787C?OpenDocument
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Internally Displaced People (UNHCR)
Code: IDP_A  —  Unit: Number
Internally Displaced People (UNHCR)
UNHCR Global Trends
http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49c3646c4d6.html
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International humanitarian aid by the Financial Tracking Service
Code: FTS  —  Unit: US%
International humanitarian aid by the Financial Tracking Service
UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)
http://fts.unocha.org/pageloader.aspx
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International humanitarian aid by the Financial Tracking Service
Code: FTS  —  Unit: US%
International humanitarian aid by the Financial Tracking Service
UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)
http://fts.unocha.org/pageloader.aspx
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International humanitarian aid by the Financial Tracking Service
Code: FTS  —  Unit: US%
International humanitarian aid by the Financial Tracking Service
UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)
http://fts.unocha.org/pageloader.aspx
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Internet users (per 100 people)
Code: SER.IT.NET.USER.P2  —  Unit: per 100
Internet users are people with access to the worldwide network.
World Bank
http://data.worldbank.org/
Copyright Notice: The World Bank strives to enhance public access to and use of data that it collects and publishes. See http://go.worldbank.org/OJC02YMLA0.
Land area (sq. km)
Code: AG.LND.TOTL.K2  —  Unit: Number
Land area (sq. km)
World Bank
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.TOTL.K2
Copyright Notice: The World Bank strives to enhance public access to and use of data that it collects and publishes. See http://go.worldbank.org/OJC02YMLA0.
Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)
Code: SE.ADT.LITR.ZS  —  Unit: [%]
Adult (15+) literacy rate (%). Total is the percentage of the population age 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. This indicator is calculated by dividing the number of literates aged 15 years and over by the corresponding age group population and multiplying the result by 100.
UNESCO Institute for Statistics
http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/ReportFolders/reportFolders.aspx
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Malaria mortality rate
Code: MALARIA  —  Unit: per 100000
The death rate associated with malaria is the number of deaths caused by malaria per 100,000 people per year.
WHO Global Health Observatory Data Repository
http://apps.who.int/ghodata/
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Measles (MCV) immunization coverage among 1-year-olds (%)
Code: HLT.SH.IMM.MEAS  —  Unit: [%]
The percentage of children under one year of age who have received at least one dose of measles-containing vaccine in a given year.
WHO Global Health Observatory Data Repository
http://apps.who.int/ghodata/
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Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)
Code: SER.IT.CEL.SETS.P2  —  Unit: per 100
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included.
World Bank
http://data.worldbank.org/
Copyright Notice: The World Bank strives to enhance public access to and use of data that it collects and publishes. See http://go.worldbank.org/OJC02YMLA0.
Multidimensional Poverty Index
Code: MPI  —  Unit: Index
The Multidimensional Poverty MPI Index identifies overlapping deprivations at the household level across the same three dimensions as the Human Development Index (living standards, health, and education) and shows the average number of poor people and deprivations with which poor households contend.
UNDP Human Development Report
http://hdr.undp.org/en/data
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Natural Disasters
Code: NATDIS  —  Unit: per 1000
Total affected by Natural Disasters
EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database
http://www.emdat.be
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Natural Disasters
Code: NATDIS  —  Unit: per 1000
Total affected by Natural Disasters
EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database
http://www.emdat.be
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Natural Disasters
Code: NATDIS  —  Unit: per 1000
Total affected by Natural Disasters
EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database
http://www.emdat.be
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Net ODA received (% of GNI)
Code: ECO.DT.ODA.ODAT.GN.ZS  —  Unit: [%]
Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent).
World Bank
http://data.worldbank.org/
Copyright Notice: The World Bank strives to enhance public access to and use of data that it collects and publishes. See http://go.worldbank.org/OJC02YMLA0.
Official Development Assistance
Code: ODA  —  Unit: $
Official Development Assistance
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx
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Official Development Assistance
Code: ODA  —  Unit: $
Official Development Assistance
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx
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Physical exposure to earthquakes of MMI categories higher than VI
Code: NH.EQ.MMI6.SP  —  Unit: Number
Physical exposure to earthquakes of MMI VI - annual population exposed (inhabitants)
GSHAP, LandScan
http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/static/GSHAP/
Copyright Notice: This product was made utilizing the LandScan (insert dataset year)™ High Resolution global Population Data Set copyrighted by UT-Battelle, LLC, operator of Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the United States Department of Energy. The United States Government has certain rights in this Data Set. Neither UT-BATTELLE, LLC NOR THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NOR ANY OF THEIR EMPLOYEES, MAKES ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, OR ASSUMES ANY LEGAL LIABILITY OR RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, OR USEFULNESS OF THE DATA SET.
Physical exposure to earthquakes of MMI categories higher than VIII
Code: NH.EQ.MMI8.SP  —  Unit: Number
Physical exposure to earthquakes of MMI VIII - annual population exposed (inhabitants)
GSHAP, LandScan
http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/static/GSHAP/
Copyright Notice: This product was made utilizing the LandScan (insert dataset year)™ High Resolution global Population Data Set copyrighted by UT-Battelle, LLC, operator of Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the United States Department of Energy. The United States Government has certain rights in this Data Set. Neither UT-BATTELLE, LLC NOR THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NOR ANY OF THEIR EMPLOYEES, MAKES ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, OR ASSUMES ANY LEGAL LIABILITY OR RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, OR USEFULNESS OF THE DATA SET.
Physical exposure to flood
Code: NH.FL.SP  —  Unit: Number
Physical exposure to flood - average annual population exposed (inhabitants)
GAR 2015, LandScan
http://risk.preventionweb.net/capraviewer/main.jsp
Copyright Notice: All datasets are available for free for non commercial purposes to governments, international organisations, universities, non-governmental organisations, the private sector and civil society according to this terms and conditions and the following disclaimers....
Physical exposure to surge from tropical cyclone
Code: NH.TC.STSG.SP  —  Unit: Number
Physical exposure to storm surges - average annual population exposed (inhabitants)
GAR 2015, LandScan
http://risk.preventionweb.net/capraviewer/main.jsp
Copyright Notice: All datasets are available for free for non commercial purposes to governments, international organisations, universities, non-governmental organisations, the private sector and civil society according to this terms and conditions and the following disclaimers....
Physical exposure to tropical cyclone of Saffir-Simpson category 1
Code: NH.TC.SS01.SP  —  Unit: Number
Physical exposure to tropical cyclone of Saffir-Simpson category 3 - annual average exposed population
GAR 2015, LandScan
http://risk.preventionweb.net/capraviewer/main.jsp
Copyright Notice: All datasets are available for free for non commercial purposes to governments, international organisations, universities, non-governmental organisations, the private sector and civil society according to this terms and conditions and the following disclaimers....
Physical exposure to tropical cyclone of Saffir-Simpson category 3
Code: NH.TC.SS03.SP  —  Unit: Number
Physical exposure to tropical cyclone of Saffir-Simpson category 1 - annual average exposed population
GAR 2015, LandScan
http://risk.preventionweb.net/capraviewer/main.jsp
Copyright Notice: All datasets are available for free for non commercial purposes to governments, international organisations, universities, non-governmental organisations, the private sector and civil society according to this terms and conditions and the following disclaimers....
Physical exposure to tsunamis
Code: NH.TS.SP  —  Unit: Number
Physical exposure to tsunamis - annual population exposed (inhabitants)
GAR 2015, LandScan
http://risk.preventionweb.net/capraviewer/main.jsp
Copyright Notice: All datasets are available for free for non commercial purposes to governments, international organisations, universities, non-governmental organisations, the private sector and civil society according to this terms and conditions and the following disclaimers....
Physicians density
Code: HLT.SH.MED.PHYS.ZS  —  Unit: per 10000
Number of medical doctors (physicians), including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 10,000 population.
WHO Global Health Observatory Data Repository
http://apps.who.int/ghodata/
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Population, total
Code: POP.SP.POP.TOTL  —  Unit: Number
Population
World Bank
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL
Copyright Notice: The World Bank strives to enhance public access to and use of data that it collects and publishes. See http://go.worldbank.org/OJC02YMLA0.
Prevalence of undernourishment (% of population)
Code: SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS  —  Unit: [%]
Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.
World Bank
http://data.worldbank.org/
Copyright Notice: The World Bank strives to enhance public access to and use of data that it collects and publishes. See http://go.worldbank.org/OJC02YMLA0.
Refugees (Palestine)
Code: REF  —  Unit: Number
Refugees (Palestine)
UNRWA
http://www.unrwa.org/resources
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Returned refugees
Code: RET_REF  —  Unit: Number
Returned refugees
UNHCR Global Trends
http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49c3646c4d6.html
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